Researchers have identified a system used to evaluate the different stages of the progression of dementia systems called the “Clinical Dementia Rating” (CDR).
Although there are questionnaires and tests available on the internet that may help to diagnose dementia, a doctor should administer a patient’s tests for an accurate diagnosis. This will determine not only which stage of dementia is present, but also which type of dementia.
The CDR scale allows doctors and researchers to gauge a person’s ability to perform in different areas of cognition and functioning, including:
- Home and hobbies
- Personal care
Early-Stage Dementia (CDR-1)
Early-stage dementia is characterized by mild impairment, which is a score of 1 on the scale of the Clinical Dementia Rating. While symptoms of early-stage dementia are mild, they are still noticeable to those around them. It’s especially important as a family member or caregiver to keep an eye out for the following symptoms:
- Forgetfulness and memory loss
- Losing items without being able to retrace steps to find them
- Trouble managing finances, such as balancing a checkbook and forgetting about bills
- Neglect of household chores or personal hygiene
- Confusion while driving
- Trouble managing medications
- Loss of concentration
People diagnosed with early-stage dementia are still able to live independently, however it is important that they have access to regular care to ensure they are taken care of physically, emotionally and financially.
Mid-Stage Dementia (CDR-2)
A diagnosis of CDR-2 is equivalent to mid-stage dementia, which is slightly more impairment than early-stage dementia, but still characterized by moderate impairment. While there is no set timeline for how quickly or slowly someone transitions between dementia stages, signs of mid-stage dementia include:
- Disorientation in terms of time and space
- Easily lost
- Struggle to understand time relationships
- Difficulty remembering new things, including people
- Feeling moody or withdrawn in social situations or when experiencing a cognitive challenge
- Trouble with bladder control
- Restless at night or a change in typical sleep patterns
Once your loved one’s memory loss progresses to mid-stage dementia, they will require more day-to-day care. For caregivers, this increase in necessary care can be a bit overwhelming, so we created the Sunrise Caregiver Guide to help caregivers better understand the memory loss journey.
Late-Stage Dementia (CDR-3)
A diagnosis of CDR-3 is a determination that the symptoms associated with dementia have become more advanced. 24-hour care is generally required for those diagnosed with late-stage dementia. Symptoms of late-stage dementia typically include:
- Extreme memory loss
- No understanding of orientation in time
- Extremely limited social abilities, even with assistance
- Requiring help with day-to-day activities, such as eating and bathing
- Wandering and becoming lost if unsupervised
If your loved one has been diagnosed with CDR-3, the best way to care for them is to enlist the help of trained professionals. When looking for a person or place to care for your loved one who is living with dementia, consider the quality of care as well as the environment and existing group dynamic.
Find Custom Care at Sunrise
Sunrise Senior Living’s memory care services focus on providing a safe, familiar and stimulating environment for people living with dementia and Alzheimer’s. Our memory care team is specially trained in dementia care techniques such as Validation Therapy, and personalizes each resident’s care based on the individual’s different preferences and care needs.
Recent research has shown that personalized care programs have the biggest impact on those living with dementia. At Sunrise, personalized programs can include multi-sensory experiences, daily exercise and outings, group activities, and visits with children and pets.
Learn more about the memory care program at Sunrise or schedule a tour at a community near you.